Food poisoning or foodborne illness can affect anyone who eats food contaminated by bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins, or other substances, but certain people are more likely to get sick or to have a serious illness.
Know whether you’re in a group of people who are more likely to get food poisoning, and make safer choices to reduce your risk for foodborne illness.
People at risk include:
- Adults age 65 and older
- Children younger than 5 years
- People whose immune systems are weakened due to illness or medical treatment
- Pregnant women
If you or someone you care for are included in one of these groups, follow our four basic steps to food safety and the additional tips included below.
Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often.
Separate: Separate raw meat and poultry from ready-to-eat food.
Cook: Cook food to the right temperature.
Chill: Chill raw meat and poultry, as well as cooked leftovers, promptly (within 2 hours).
Becoming a Safer Shopper
- Do not buy or use damaged, swollen, rusted, or dented cans.
- Choose unbruised fruits and vegetables.
- Do not buy or use cracked or unrefrigerated eggs.
- Pick up frozen and refrigerated items just before you check out at the grocery store.
- Refrigerate groceries right away, and never leave perishable foods out for more than 2 hours.
- Put raw packaged meat, poultry, or seafood into a plastic bag before placing it in the shopping cart, so that its juices will not drip on and contaminate other foods.
- Ask whether the food contains raw or undercooked ingredients such as eggs, sprouts, meat, poultry, or seafood. If so, choose something else.
- Ask how these foods have been cooked. If the server does not know the answer, ask to speak to the chef to be sure your food has been cooked to a safe minimum internal temperature.
- If you plan to save leftovers to eat later, refrigerate perishable foods as soon as possible – and always within 2 hours after purchase or delivery. If the leftover is in air temperatures above 90 °F, refrigerate within 1 hour.
- If in doubt, make another selection.
Selecting Safer AlternativesDownload Table as PDF
|Type of Food||High Risk||Lower Risk|
|Meat and Poultry||Raw or undercooked meat or poultry||Meat or poultry cooked to a safe minimum internal temperature|
|Eggs||Foods that contain raw/undercooked eggs, such as:
||Use pasteurized eggs/egg products when preparing recipes that call for raw or undercooked eggs|
|Sprouts||Raw sprouts (alfalfa, bean, or any other sprout)||Cooked sprouts|
|Vegetables||Unwashed fresh vegetables, including lettuce/salads||
|Cheese||Soft cheeses made from unpasteurized (raw) milk, such as:
|Hot Dogs and Deli Meats||Hot dogs, deli and luncheon meats that have not been reheated||Reheat hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deli meats to steaming hot or 165ºF|
|Pâtés||Unpasteurized and/or refrigerated pâtés or meat spreads||Canned or shelf-stable pâtés or meat spreads|
- Discard any food left out at room temperature for more than 2 hours—1 hour if the outside temperature is above 90°F.
- Place food into shallow containers and immediately put in the refrigerator or freezer for rapid cooling.
- Use cooked leftovers within 4 days.
- Reheat leftovers to 165°F.